Saddam Hussein – The World’s Worst Dictators in History – Part 3
Saddam Hussein was born on April 28, 1937 at Tikrit in Iraq. His Father was a shepherd and was disappeared few months before Saddam was born. A few months later his older brother died of cancer. During the born of Saddam, his mother was severely depressed by her oldest son’s death and the disappearances of her husband so, she was not able to care for Saddam and at the age of 3 he was sent to Baghdad to live with his uncle. Khairallah Talfah. After few years Saddam returns to Al-Awja to live with his mother, but after getting abused by his stepfather, he again went to Baghdad to live with his uncle.
After attending the nationalistic Al-Karh Secondary School in Baghdad, in 1957, at age of 20 Saddam joined the Ba’ath Party, Whose ultimate aim was the unity of Arab States in the Middle East. On October 7, 1959 Saddam and few other members of party attempted to assassinate Iraq’s then president, Abd al-Karim Qasim, who was resisting to joining the nascent United Arab Republic and alliance with Iraq’s communist party had put him at odds with the Ba’athishts during the assassination. Qasim’s chauffeur was killed, and Qasim was shot many time, but survived. Saddam was shot in the leg and many other assassins were caught, tried and executed, but Saddam and other members managed to escape to Syria, where Saddam stayed briefly before going to Egypt, where he attended the law school.
In 1963, when Qasim’s government was overthrown in the so-called Ramadan Revolution, Saddam came back to Iraq, but he was arrested the same year for in-fighting in the Ba’ath party. During in prison he was actively involved in politics, and in 1966 he was appointed as deputy secretary of the Regional Command. Shortly after that he managed to escape from the prison and continued to strengthen his political power.
In 1968, Saddam participated in a bloodless but successful Ba’athish coup that resulted in Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr becoming Iraq’s president and Saddam his deputy. During this government, Saddam proved himself to be progressive and effective politician, although a definitely cruel one. He did much to transform Iraq’s infrastructure, industry and healthcare system, raised social services, education, farming subsidies to levels unparalleled in other Arab Countries. He also nationalized Iraq’s oil industry, which gave massive revenue for the nation. During that time, however Saddam helped to develop Iraq’s first chemical weapons program and to guards against coups, created powerful security apparatus.
In 1979, when al-Bakr attempted to unite Iraq and Syria, in a move that was left Saddam powerless, Saddam forced al-Bakr to resign, and Saddam Hussein became President of the Ba’ath party on July 16, 1979. During the meeting, 68 names were read out and those all 68 peoples were arrested and removed from the room, all were tried and found guilty of treason and 22 were sentenced to death. In early August 1979, hundreds of Saddam’s political foes had been executed.
The same year that Saddam ascended to the presidency, Ayatollah Khomeini was leading a successful Islamic revolution in Iraq’s neighbour to the northeast, Iran. Saddam, whose political power rested in part upon the support of Iraq’s minority Sunni population, Saddam was worried about the developments in Shi-ite majority Iran which could lead to similar uprising in Iraq. In response, Saddam ordered Iraqi forces to invade the oil-rich region of Khuzestan in Iran on September 22, 1980. The conflict soon blossomed into a war, but Western nations and other Arab world,fearful of the spread of Islamic radicalism and what it would mean to the region and the world, laid their support behind Saddam, despite the fact that he is violated International law. On August 20, 1988, after years of intense conflict that left hundreds of thousands dead on both sides and a ceasefire agreement were finally reached.
In the aftermath of the conflict, seeking a means of invigorating Iraq’s war-ravaged economy and infrastructure, at the end of 1980s Saddam turned his attention towards Iraq’s wealthy neighbour, Kuwait. Using the justification that it was a historical part of Iraq, Saddam ordered the invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990. A UN Security Council resolution was quickly passed, imposing economic sanctions on Iraq and setting a deadline by which Iraqi Forces must leave Kuwait.But in the January 15, 1991 deadline was mistreated, a UN coalition force headed by the United States confronted Iraqi Forces, and six weeks later had driven from Kuwait. A ceasefire agreement was signed, in the terms of which included Iraq dismantling its germs and chemical weapons programs.
The Gulf War’s resulting economic hardships further divided an already fractured Iraqi people. During the 1990s, various Shi-ite and Kurdish people uprising occurred but the rest of the world fearing another war, Kurdish independence or the spread of Islamic fundamentalism did little or nothing to support these rebellions and they were ultimately crushed by Saddam’s security forces. At the same time Iraq remained under power of international scrutiny as well. In 1993, when Iraqi forces dishonoured a no-fly zone imposed by the United Nations, the United States launched a missile attack on Baghdad. In 1998, further violations of the no-fly zones and Iraq’s alleged continuation of its weapons programs led further missile strikes on Iraq, which would occur from time to time until February 2001.
Soon after September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre, Soviet intelligence relayed information to the U.S. Government that Iraq was planning further terrorist attacks against the United States. In his January 2002, U.S. President George W. Bush named Iraq as part of his so-called “Axis of Evil,” along with Iran and North Korea and claimed that country was developing weapons of mass destruction and supporting terrorism.
After that year, UN had inspection of suspected weapons sites in Iraq but due tono evidence found of such programs existed. Despite this, on March 20, 2003, under the pretence that Iraq did in fact have a covert weapons program and that it was planning attacks, a U.S. –led alliance invaded Iraq. Within weeks, the U.S. government and military had been toppled, and on April 9, 2003, Baghdad fell. However Saddam Managed to escape imprison.
Finnaly, on December 13, 2003, Saddam Hussein was found hiding in small underground bunker near a farmhouse in ad-Dawr, near Tikrit. From there he was shifted to a U.S. base in Baghdad; where he was remain until June 30, 2004. Then he officially handed over to the interim Iraqi government to stand trial for crimes against Humanity.
On November 5, 2006, Saddam Hussein was found guilty and sentenced to death. Sadam was hanged, despite his request to be shot On December 30, 2006, at Camp Justice, an Iraqi base in Baghdad. He was buried in his birthplace at Al-Awja, on December 31, 2006.